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Table 3 Food security ESR model results

From: The impact of climate smart agriculture on household welfare in smallholder integrated crop–livestock farming systems: evidence from Zimbabwe

Variable Selection equation (CSA adoption) Outcome equation (food security)
Non-adopter Adopter
Coefficient Robust Std. Err. Coefficient Robust Std. Err. Coefficient Robust Std. Err.
HH education − 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.17 0.04b 0.02
Household size    0.18 0.41 0.01 0.03
Arable land size 0.10 0.08 0.102b 0.077 − 0.01 0.03
Distance output market 0.003b 0.002 0.11 0.11 − 4.5 0.002
Extension contact − 0.02 0.03 − 0.04 0.40 − 0.001 0.02
LogMaizearea    0.21 2.41 − 0.19 0.25
Off-farm Income    0.001 0.003 0.00 0.00
TLU 0.25b 0.10 0.29 0.18 0.06c 0.02
Access to safe water    − 0.48 1.54 − 0.43b 0.17
Access to sanitation    0.03 1.78 0.81c 0.25
Distance extension − 0.01 0.001     
Distance input market − 0.007b 0.004     
HH age − 0.01 0.02     
HH farm experience 0.02 0.01     
Local traders 0.01 0.03     
Group membership − 0.24 0.33     
Access to weather forecasts 0.56 0.58     
Draft livestock − 0.28 0.22     
HH labour size − 0.02 0.05     
Awareness CSA 0.12 0.70     
Communication asset ownership 0.84 0.92     
Transport asset ownership − 0.67 0.55     
Tillage implement asset − 0.23 0.25     
Fertile soil 0.75a 0.43     
Credit access − 0.16 0.38     
_cons 0.91 0.68 4.17 6.58 5.75c 0.38
/lns0 0.66 1.46     
/lns1 0.31c 0.05     
/r0 − 0.57 3.38     
/r1 0.11 0.34     
sigma0 1.93 2.82     
sigma1 1.36 0.07     
rho0 − 0.52 2.48     
rho1 0.11 0.33     
  1. a, b, cA significance level of 10%, 5%, and 1%, respectively