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Table 2 Variables used in the ESR model and summary statistics

From: The impact of climate smart agriculture on household welfare in smallholder integrated crop–livestock farming systems: evidence from Zimbabwe

Variable Non-adopter Adopter Whole sample Test Statistic t/Chi-square value
Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev.
HH food security (DDS) 6.46 2.3 6.67 1.42 6.66 1.48 − 0.65
Annual HH income (US$) 428.23 418.62 865.96 1618.31 841.01 1577.71 1.62
HH education (years) 8.77 4.19 8.25 3.73 8.28 3.75 0.63
HH age (years) 48.45 15.94 49.95 16.49 49.86 16.44 − 0.41
HH farm experience (years) 16.23 14.06 19.06 13.79 18.9 13.8 − 0.94
Household size (number) 4.5 1.97 4.96 2.48 4.93 2.45 − 0.85
HH labour size (number) 3.27 1.52 3.53 2.18 3.51 2.14 − 0.54
Arable land size (acres) 2.4 1.94 3.1 2.22 3.06 2.21 − 1.45
Soil fertility (1 = fertile 0 = otherwise) 0.05 0.21 0.15 0.36 0.14 0.35 1.80
Maize area (acres) 0.99 0.47 1.36 1.04 1.35 1.02 3.34a
TLU (number) 0.85 1.95 2.32 3.61 2.24 3.55 − 1.89a
Draft livestock (number) 0.18 0.59 0.46 0.99 0.44 0.97 − 1.28
Distance output market (Km) 31.15 27.9 43.96 62.61 43.23 61.22 − 0.95
Distance input market (Km) 13.22 13.64 14.07 23.47 14.02 23.01 − 0.17
Traders buying locally (number) 3.23 4.10 4.23 6.76 4.17 6.63 − 0.69
Group membership (1 = yes) 0.41 0.50 0.49 0.50 0.48 0.50 0.53
Extension Contact (number) 5.27 4.23 6.43 6 6.36 5.92 − 0.89
Distance to extension (Km) 39.56 121.27 18.78 87.65 19.97 89.83 1.05
Access to weather forecast (1 = yes 0 = no) 0.41 0.5 0.66 0.47 0.65 0.48 5.67b
Awareness CSA (1 = yes 0 = no) 0.64 0.49 0.63 0.48 0.63 0.48 0.00
Owns communication asset (1 = yes 0 = no) 0.82 0.39 0.93 0.26 0.92 0.27 3.53a
Owns transport asset (1 = yes 0 = no) 0.55 0.51 0.41 0.49 0.42 0.49 − 1.45
Owns tillage asset (1 = yes 0 = no) 0.32 0.48 0.37 0.48 0.37 0.48 0.25
Asset index 7.36 3.82 7.92 3.57 7.89 3.58 − 0.71
Credit access (1 = yes 0 = no) 0.18 0.39 0.19 0.39 0.19 0.39 0.01
Crop income US$ 114.77 33.32 328.11 62.98 114.77 156.32 − 0.83
Livestock income US$ 50.46 31.50 138.02 19.71 50.45 147.73 − 1.09
Off-farm income US$ 263 361.52 399.83 726.99 392.03 711.65 − 0.88
Access to safe water (1 = yes 0 = no) 0.59 0.5 0.86 0.35 0.84 0.37 11.05c
Access to sanitation (1 = yes 0 = no) 0.73 0.46 0.90 0.31 0.89 0.32 5.82b
  1. HH means Household Head
  2. a, b, cA significance level of 10%, 5%, and 1%, respectively