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Table 1 Descriptions and expected sign of the variables

From: Analysis of technical efficiency in maize production in Guji Zone: stochastic frontier model

Variables Descriptions and measures Expected sign
Output (dependent variable) It indicates the per hectare production of maize. It is measured in quintal  
Lists of independent variables
 Land It shows the amount of land allocated for maize production. It is measured in hectare  + 
 Labor It is any active labor either hired or family labor participated in farming activities  + 
 Capital There is no modern agricultural machinery such as tractor and combiner in the study area, and the number of pair of oxen involved in maize farming activity is used as a proxy for capital  + 
 Fertilizer It show the total amount of fertilizer used. In the study, only DAP is used. Use of the recommended quantities of fertilizer is critical and can have a positive effect on output  + 
 Seed It indicates the amount of the maize seeds used by the farmers. It can be improved seed or local seed. It is measured in kg  + 
 Tillage repetition This indicates efforts exerted by farmers to prepare the land before sowing. As the farmers repeatedly plow their farm, the soil can become fertile and their farm productivity can be enhanced  + 
 Weeding repetition This indicates efforts exerted by farmers to clean their farm from weeds. It is usual to see unwanted plants or weeding in the farm and hence the farmers allocate a considerable amount of their time to clean it  +