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Table 3 Incidence of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) in betel nuts obtained from India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka

From: Comparison of aflatoxins contamination levels in betel nuts (Areca catechu L.) imported from Asian countries

Country Tested samples Positive samples n (%) Number of samples in AFs concentration range, µg/kg Average (µg/kg) Range (µg/kg)
NF < 4 4 to 20 21 to 50 > 50
India 80 77 (96.3) 3 (3.8) 6 (7.5) 2 (2.5) 26 (32.5) 43 (53.8) 76.11 ± 1.12 1.18‒331.57
Indonesia 39 39 (100) 0 2 (5.1) 0 9 (23.1) 28 (71.8) 123.76 ± 1.25 1.88‒378.94
Sri Lanka 24 24 (100) 0 0 2 (8.3) 11 (45.8) 11 (45.8) 47.95 ± 0.98 4.74‒106.58
Total 143 140 (97.9) 3 (2.1) 8 (5.6) 4 (2.8) 46 (32.2) 82 (57.3) 84.38 ± 1.09 1.18‒378.94
  1. All measurements were made in triplicate and reported as mean ± SD
  2. NF not found within the detectable limit (≥ 1 µg/kg)
  3. The aflatoxins contamination in various countries was significantly different from each other at p < 0.05 according to analysis using ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc analysis (F-value = 68.5428; Degree of freedom = 462; p-value = 0.004)