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Table 4 Medicinal properties of Rhododendron arboreum plant

From: Bioactive compounds, health benefits and utilization of Rhododendron: a comprehensive review

Plant part Bioactive compounds Medicinal uses Remarks References
Flower Contains profile of phenolic compounds, quercetin (C15H10O7), rutin (C27H30O16), coumaric acid (C9H8O3), saponins, xanthoprotein, steroids, tannins, etc., sugar, amino acid, vitamins, organic acid, etc. Anti-diabetic, beneficial against diabetic nephropathy (DN), anti-diarrheal activity, antimicrobial activity anti-inflammatory, dyspepsia, anti-nociceptive, Hepatoprotective, fungal infection, free radical scavenging activity, anti-allergy Since the flower contains anti-diabetic potential, it can be used as nutraceutical or functional food for diabetes and its complications. Phenolic compounds present in it enhance the medicinal properties and therefore has been used widely for healing many diseases [2, 18,19,20,21,22,23]
Leaves Leaves contain glucoside, ericolin, ursolic acid, α-amyrin, epifriedelinol, Campanulin, quercetin, hyperoside. They also contain flavone glycoside, dimethyl ester of terephthalic acid and certain flavonoids, phenols, epicatechin, catechins, anthocyanidins Antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory, gout and rheumatics (dried leaves), alleviate headache and fever, diuretics, fungal infection, to relief toothache, sciatica syphilis, treatment of cold cough, asthma, bronchitis, post-delivery complications, indigestion, lung infection, hepatic disorders, analgesic activity, anti-allergy Flavonoids are present in the leaves and vitamin C is found to possess antioxidant activity and the leaves are also helpful in the treatment of gout and rheumatics and are used traditionally for healing many diseases like cough, cold, fever, indigestion, headache, etc. [2, 18,19,20, 24]
Root Alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins, reducing sugars, steroids, saponins, anthraquinones Anticancer, anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, prevent cardiovascular diseases The presence of secondary metabolites signifies that the root of rhododendron can be used as a therapeutic agent [2, 4]
Bark Alkanoids, steroids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins and reducing sugars. The bark is also found to be a rich source of taraxerol, betulinic acid, ursolic acid (C30H48O4) Excellent cold reliever, antimicrobial agent, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-hyperlipidemic, and antimicrobial effects Alkaloids help to control the development system of the living organism and play a metabolic role by providing the protective properties. Tannins have the reducing power which prevents liver injury by inhibiting the lipid peroxides. Ursolic acid has a number of biological as well as medicinal properties [2, 4, 21, 25]
Stem Alkanoids, steroids, terpenoids, anthraquinones, tannins, glycoside saponins and reducing sugar Hemorrhage, hay fever, bronchial asthma, anticancer, prevent cardiovascular diseases The bioactive substances can promote good health, and they are used for healing many diseases [4]