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Table 4 Households reported food shortage according to high index value of different livelihood capitals, Dhanbad, India, 2015.

From: Does coal mining affect household food security? An empirical study of Dhanbad, India

High index Villages not affected by mining activity Villages affected by mining activity Total
% [χ2] % [χ2] % [χ2]
Natural capital 63.9 [11.9***] 40.2 [5.7**] 53.7 [21.1***]
Social capital 34.3 [2.1] 45.1 [3.7*] 39.0 [7.3***]
Economic capital 12.0 [32.4***] 13.4 [33.5***] 12.6 [67.8***]
Human capital 28.7 [13.7***] 30.5 [4.5**] 29.5 [16.6***]
Physical capital 18.5 [27.1***] 22.0 [47.1***] 20.0 [77.1***]
All capital 19.4 [29.7***] 18.3 [54.4***] 19.0 [85.8***]
N 108   82   190  
  1. Livelihood capital indexes (High level + Low level = 100%), the high value means higher the utilization level and vice versa; level of significance: *p value < 0.1, **p value < 0.05, ***p value < 0.01; N total household sample