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Table 7 Impact of use and non-use of CSA packages on food security estimated using HFCS of farmers by ESR

From: Effect of climate-smart agricultural practices on household food security in smallholder production systems: micro-level evidence from Kenya

Package   HFCS HDDS
Treated characteristics (β1) Untreated characteristics (β2) Impact/returns Treated characteristics (β1) Untreated characteristics (β2) Impact/returns
C 1 F 0 R 0 S 0 Treated (X1) 49.14 (1.92) 49.52 (0.96) − 0.38 5.31 (0.21) 6.06 (0.12) − 0.25
  Untreated (X2) 52.35 (2.23) 65.07 (0.80) − 12.72 5.68 (0.019) 6.89 (0.07) − 1.21
  Level effects − 3.21 − 15.54*** − 15.93 − 0.37* − 0.83*** − 1.58
C 1 F 0 R 1 S 0 Treated 65.75 (7.24) 56.52 (2.25) 9.23 7.20 (0.55) 6.36 (0.18) 0.84
  Untreated 63.29 (3.68) 63.65 (0.78) − 0.36 6.69 (0.31) 6.74 (0.07) − 0.05
  Level effects 2.46 − 7.13*** 2.1 0.51 − 0.38** 0.46
C 1 F 0 R 1 S 1 Treated 61.09 (3.37) 80.84 (2.72) − 19.75 6.56 (0.30) 6.63 (0.10) 0.07
  Untreated 57.40 (2.63) 63.82 (0.80) − 6.42 6.25 (0.23) 6.76 (0.06) − 0.51
  Level effects 3.69 17.02*** − 2.73 0.32 − 0.13 − 0.20
C 1 F 1 R 0 S 0 Treated 55.77 (1.09) 65.81 (1.01) − 10.04 6.14 (0.09) 7.04 (0.09) − 0.90
  Untreated 59.44 (0.96) 69.11 (0.93) − 9.67 6.29 (0.09) 7.18 (0.09) − 0.89
  Level effects − 3.67*** − 3.30*** − 13.34 − 0.15 − 0.14 − 1.04
C 1 F 1 R 0 S 1 Treated 63.89 (2.18) 69.99 (0.80) − 6.10 6.70 (0.23) 7.52 (0.09) − 0.82
  Untreated 63.59 (1.94) 63.69 (0.83) − 0.10 6.76 (0.07) 6.75 (0.14) 0.01
  Level effects 0.30 6.30*** 0.20 − 0.05 0.76*** − 0.05
C 1 F 1 R 1 S 0 Treated 74.70 (1.03) 62.72 (0.83) 11.98 7.66 (0.10) 6.35 (0.09) 1.31
  Untreated 75.75 (1.20) 60.64 (0.89) 15.11 7.90 (0.11) 6.51 (0.08) 1.39
  Level effects − 1.05 2.08* 27.09 − 0.25** − 0.16* 1.15
C 1 F 1 R 1 S 1 Treated 83.92 (1.01) 68.04 (0.82) 15.88 8.48 (0.11) 7.06 (0.10) 1.42
  Untreated 79.09 (1.23) 53.51 (0.82) 15.58 8.19 (0.12) 6.76 (0.07) 1.43
  Level effects 4.83*** 4.53*** 30.41 0.29** 0.31*** 1.72
Pairwise correlation  
  HDDS HFC      
HDDS 1       
HFC 0.9652*** 1      
  1. Standard errors are in parentheses. C crop management, F field management, R risk reduction, S specific soil management