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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of the sampled farm households

From: Agricultural extension and its effects on farm productivity and income: insight from Northern Ghana

Description of variables Participants Non-participants
Mean SE Mean SE
Dependent variables
Maize productivity/yield (kg/ha) 1811.27 179.49 1511.24 122.87
Maize farm income (total sales in GH¢ per ha) 1177.33c 116.67 982.3 79.86
Total household income (GH¢) 13,710.85a 183.43 8239.94 1158.60
Total household income per capita (GH¢) 2222.01a 313.36 788.04 90.04
Explanatory variables
Socio-economic characteristics
Gender of the household head (dummy; 1 = male, 0 otherwise) 0.69a 0.46
Age of the household head (years) 40.65 11.11 41.69 10.44
Household size (count) 6.17a 0.545 10.45 5.86
Number of years in formal education (years) 6.35 0.58 5.73 0.59
Number of years in crop farming 19.89 11.57 20.72 12.06
Plot characteristics
Number of maize plots (count) 1.25b 0.66 1.47 0.611
Farm size (farmland allocated to maize cultivation in ha) 2.14a 2.03 1.3 0.75
Institutional factors
Access to credit 0.28 0.07
Farmer-based organization 0.66   0.73  
Distance to local market (kilometres) 14.13c 10.22 16.08 12.12
Distance to regional market (kilometres) 24.32 11.34 23.23 14.56
  1. a,b,cdenote 1, 5 and 10% levels of significance, respectively