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Table 3 Basic characteristics of crop–livestock diversifiers by Margalef index

From: Determinants of crop–livestock diversification in the mixed farming systems: evidence from central highlands of Ethiopia

Socioeconomic characteristics Index
0.0–0.33 (N = 30) 0.34–0.67 (N = 114) 0.68–1.00 (N = 63) Total (N = 211)
Age of household head (years)
 < 30 23.3 13.2 15.9 15.5
 31–40 33.3 29.8 34.9 31.9
 41–50 30.0 33.3 20.6 29.0
 51–60 6.7 14.0 17.5 14.0
 Above 61 6.7 9.7 11.1 9.6
 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Sex of household head
 Male 40.0 71.0 77.8 68.6
 Female 60.0 29.0 22.2 31.4
 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Size of landholding (ha)
 0.0–1.30 76.7 45.6 44.4 49.8
 1.31–2.60 23.3 51.8 52.4 47.8
 2.60–4.00 10.0 2.6 3.2 2.4
 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Household labor (AE)
 0.0–2.30 63.3 47.4 46.0 49.3
 2.31–4.60 23.3 41.2 42.9 39.1
 4.61–6.90 13.4 11.4 11.1 11.6
 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Livestock holding (TLU)
 0.0–4.20 100.0 40.4 50.8 52.2
 4.21–8.40 0.0 51.8 42.9 41.6
 8.41–12.6 0.0 7.8 6.3 6.2
 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Education (years of schooling)
 Not literate 30.0 20.2 19.1 21.3
 Grade 1–4 33.3 63.2 57.1 57.0
 Grade 5–8 23.3 13.2 19.1 16.4
 Grade 9–12 10.0 2.6 4.7 4.3
 Diploma and above 3.4 0.8 0.0 1.0
 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
  1. Size of landholding, household labor, and livestock holding are classified into three (low, middle, and high) categories
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