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Table 1 Characteristics of landscapes, farmers, and farming systems where the impacts of climate change were studied

From: Climate change impacts and adaptation among smallholder farmers in Central America

Characteristics Turrialba,    Costa Rica Los Santos, Costa Rica Acatenango, Guatemala Chiquimula, Guatemala Choluteca, Honduras Yoro, Honduras Total (all landscapes) F and p values for comparisons across landscapes
Landscape characteristics
Municipalities Turrialba Dota, Tarrazú, León Cortés Acatenango, Alotenango, San Pedro Yepocapa Quetzaltepeque, San Jacinto, San Juan Ermita El Triunfo, Concepción de María Yoro, Yorito, Victoria
Area (ha) 158,800 82,000 42,600 39,600 47,500 325,900
Holdridge life zone Premontane Tropical Wet Forest, Premontane Rainforest Lower Montane Wet Forest, Premontane Rainforest Subtropical Wet Forest Subtropical Moist Forest Tropical Dry Forest Subtropical Wet Forest Subtropical Moist forest
Mean annual temperature (°C) 19.1 17.5 19.5 22.2 27.0 22.2
Mean annual rainfall (mm) 2813 3371 2288 1210 1855 1389
Elevational range (masl) 41–3733 76–3368 471–3680 452–1779 4–775 73–2191*
Farmer and household characteristics
n (all farmers surveyed) 144 151 149 115 155 146 860
# (and %) who were men 122 (84.7) 136 (90.1) 114 (76.5) 85 (73.9) 110 (71.0) 107 (73.3) 674 (78.4)
Mean (± SE) age of household head 58.2 ± 1.2a 51.9 ± 1.2b 48.2 ± 1.2cd 46.0 ± 1.4d 49.8 ± 1.2bc 48.1 ± 1.2cd 50.5 ± 05 F = 11.8
p < 0.0001
Mean household size (± SE) 3.4 ± 0.2b 3.7 ± 0.2 b 5.0 ± 0.2a 5.4 ± 0.2a 5.4 ± 0.2a 5.5 ± 0.2a 4.7 ± 0.03 F = 30.4
p < 0.0001
Mean number of years of farming experience (± SE) 29.0 ± 1.4c 29.3 ± 1.3c 29.7 ± 1.5c 32.2 ± 1.3bc 34.7 ± 1.3b 39.6 ± 1.4a 32.5 ± 0.1 F = 11.8
p < 0.0001
# (and  %) of farmers with at least one family member older than 18 years old that has migrated to another community 51 (35.4) 32 (21.2) 16 (10.7) 15 (13.0) 53 (34.2) 45 (30.8) 212 (24.7)
Education levels
# (and %) who have not completed primary school 54 (37.5) 33 (21.9) 103 (69.1) 79 (68.7) 102 (65.8) 99 (67.8) 470 (54.7)
% who only have a primary school education 68 (47.2) 83 (55) 28 (18.8) 27 (23.5) 45 (29) 33 (22.6) 284 (33.0)
# (and  %) who have more than a primary education 22 (15.3) 35 (23.2) 18 (12.1) 9 (7.8) 8 (5.2) 14 (9.6) 106 (12.3)
Access to services
# (and  %) with access to electricity 139 (96.5) 149 (98.7) 138 (92.6) 98 (85.2) 68 (43.9) 55 (37.7) 647 (75.2)
# (and  %) with access to tap water 137 (95.1) 140 (92.7) 139 (93.3) 92 (80.0) 62 (40.0) 115 (78.8) 685 (79.7)
# (and  %) that own cell phone 126 (87.5) 143 (94.7) 114 (76.5) 95 (82.6) 115 (74.2) 92 (63.0) 685 (79.7)
# (and %) that have received at least on agronomic training in the past 2 years 18 (12.5) 68 (45.0) 27 (18.1) 17 (14.8) 23 (14.8) 33 (22.6) 186 (21.6)
# (and %) that have received a visit from an agronomist in past 2 years 32 (22.2) 83 (55.0) 22 (14.8) 5 (4.3) 20 (12.9) 29 (19.9) 191 (22.2)
Household living conditions and assets
# (and %) of farmers living in a cement block and/or prefabricated house 102 (70.8) 127 (84.1) 97 (65.1) 53 (46.1) 26 (16.8) 21 (14.4) 426 (49.5)
# (and %) of farmers living in a house with dirt floor only 0 0 38 (25.5) 47 (40.9) 61 (39.4) 63 (43.2) 209 (24.3)  
# (and %) that own a car or motorcycle 71 (49.31) 136 (90.07) 38 (25.5) 25 (21.74) 25 (16.13) 27 (18.49) 322 (37.44)
# (and %) having enough food throughout the year 138 (95.8) 147 (97.4) 97 (65.1) 56 (48.7) 56 (36.1) 56 (38.6) 550 (64)
Farm characteristics
Mean farm size (ha) 2.02 ± 0.05b 3.20 ± 0.05a 0.93 ± 0.05c 1.12 ± 0.06c 1.90 ± 0.05b 2.16 ± 0.05b 1.83 ± 0.01 F = 32.22
p < 0.0001
# (and %) of farmers who own land 133 (92.4) 145 (96.0) 93 (62.4) 43 (37.4) 68 (43.9) 98 (67.1) 580 (67.4)
# (and %) of farmers who rent land 1 (0.7) 0 18 (12.1) 37 (32.2) 45 (29.0) 14 (9.6) 115 (13.4)
# (and %) of farmers who own and rent land 2 (1.4) 0 26 (17.4) 16 (13.9) 10 (6.5) 8 (5.5) 62 (7.2)
# (and %) with at least one piece of land under a different land tenure system (e.g., shared, communal or lent) 8 (5.6) 6 (4.0) 12 (8.1) 19 (16.5) 32 (20.6) 26 (17.8) 103 (12.0)
Coffee production
# (and %) of farmers who grow coffee 144 (100) 151 (100) 112 (75.2) 26 (22.6) 81 (55.5) 514 (59.8)
# (and %) of coffee farmers who sell coffee 144 (100) 151 (100) 112 (100) 17 (65.4) 61 (75.3) 485 (94.4)
Mean area (± SE) under coffee production (ha) 1.13 ± 0.05b 2.52 ± 0.05a 0.75 ± 0.05c 0.50 ± 0.14c 1.47 ± 0.07b 1.41 ± 0.01 F = 32.1
p < 0.0001
Maize production
# (and %) of farmers who grow maize 8 (5.6) 4 (2.7) 89 (59.7) 114 (99.1) 155 (100) 120 (82.2) 490 (57)
# (and %) of maize farmers who sell maize 3 (37.5) 2 (50.0) 20 (22.5) 23 (20.2) 51 (32.9) 23 (19.2) 122 (24.9)
Mean area (± SD) per farmer under maize production (ha) 0.48 ± 0.04c 0.98 ± 0.03 b 1.20 ± 0.03a 0.88 ± 0.03b 0.92 ± 0.01 F = 25.35
p < 0.0001
Bean production
# (and %) who grow beans 10 (6.9) 3 (2.0) 64 (43.0) 108 (94.0) 98 (63.2) 100 (68.5) 383 (44.5)
# (and %) of bean farmers who sell beans 1 (10) 2 (66.7) 20 (31.3) 31 (28.7) 17 (17.4) 24 (24.0) 95 (24.8)
Mean area (± SE) per under bean production (ha) 0.26 ± 0.04c 0.45 ± 0.03 b 0.55 ± 0.03b 0.95 ± 0.03a 0.57 ± 0.01 F = 34.23
p < 0.0001
Mixed systems
# (and %) who grow both maize and beans 5 (3.5) 3 (2.0) 60 (40.3) 108 (93.9) 98 (63.2) 95 (65.1) 369 (42.9)
# (and %) who grow both coffee and basic grains (maize and/or beans) 13 (9) 4 (2.6) 56 (37.6) 16 (13.9) 40 (27.4) 129 (15)
  1. Different letters within the same row denote significant differences across landscapes, based on ANOVAs (p < 0.05)
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