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Table 11 Chilling methods of solid and liquid foods [94]

From: A review on mechanisms and commercial aspects of food preservation and processing

Solid foods Batch air chillers Warm food items are fed into large refrigerated room, widely used in industry
Moving air This cost-effective, hygienic, and widely used method incurs little damage to equipment. Surface dehydration of the food is the major disadvantage of this process
Ice/ice water chilling Food items are packed in boxes and then they are placed between layers of crushed ice. Melting ice assists to maintain the temperature at 0 °C. However, this method is not labor efficient and consumes much time comparing to other processes
Cryogenic cooling This method involves the use of liquid nitrogen to freeze the product. Thermal shock confrontation of food items makes this process vulnerable
Immersion cooling/hydrocooling A cost-effective cooling method is suitable for small products. This technique involves immersing or spraying the product in cool water at near 0 °C. Hydrocooling moisturizes food items which can be detrimental to some extents
Liquid Foods Batch cooling of liquids A jacketed stainless steel vessel of varying capacity with agitator inside is usually used for this type of chilling. The coolant may circulate through the jacket of the vessel or through a coil placed in the liquid food stuff, or both while the agitator incurs uniform heat transfer
Continuous cooling of liquids The continuous cooling of liquids can involve multi-plates and tubes, aeration, and double-pipe coolers. The most widespread piece of equipment is the multi-plate cooler, which has the best efficiency, high surface area for exchanging heat, easy cleaning opportunity, and less material requirement than others