Skip to main content

Table 3 Characteristics of selected clusters of smallholder farmers from Balaka IP southern province of Malawi

From: Diversity amongst farm households and achievements from multi-stakeholder innovation platform approach: lessons from Balaka Malawi

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) p values
Cluster I Cluster II Cluster III Cluster IV Cluster V Cluster VI All clusters
Means Means Means Means Means Means Means SD
Household characteristics
 Household head is female 0.364 0.733 0.476 0.048 0.135 0.222 0.293 0.457 0.0000
 Age of household head 67.545 60.867 45.667 57.048 39.806 37.333 49.277 15.716 0.0000
 Education attained at least primary 1.000 1.000 0.857 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.966 0.183 0.0159
 Married 0.545 0.133 0.619 0.952 0.892 0.667 0.690 0.465 0.0000
 Main occupation is farming 0.818 1.000 0.905 0.762 0.811 1.000 0.853 0.355 0.2393
 Land size 1.282 1.113 0.952 1.729 2.212 2.544 1.694 1.522 0.0079
 Household size 2.545 3.800 5.524 6.524 5.378 4.889 5.061 2.079 0.0000
 Labour 1.545 2.267 3.476 4.286 3.000 2.333 3.035 1.487 0.0000
 Farming experience 29.309 28.600 19.714 26.762 12.216 9.111 19.812 12.191 0.0000
 Credit access 0.273 0.933 0.381 0.952 0.730 0.556 0.672 0.471 0.0000
 Extension access 0.545 1.000 0.905 0.905 0.622 0.556 0.750 0.435 0.0017
 Group membership 0.727 0.667 0.762 0.762 0.541 0.333 0.629 0.485 0.1373
 Received farmer training services 0.727 0.800 0.619 0.952 0.811 0.222 0.733 0.444 0.0006
 Low-wealth category 0.273 0.733 0.286 0.048 0.162 0.000 0.233 0.424 0.0000
 High-wealth category 0.091 0.133 0.286 0.429 0.216 0.000 0.224 0.419 0.0792
Achievements and benefits from IP activities
 Improved market information 0.455 0.400 0.381 0.429 0.541 0.000 0.414 0.495 0.1117
 Improved market access 1.000 0.933 1.000 0.905 0.892 0.000 0.853 0.355 0.0000
 Improved income 0.818 0.867 1.000 0.952 0.865 0.000 0.828 0.379 0.0000
 Improved conservation agriculture adoption 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.946 0.000 0.897 0.306 0.0000
 Improved soil fertility 0.909 1.000 0.667 0.714 0.784 0.333 0.750 0.435 0.0051
 Improved crop yield 0.091 0.067 0.333 0.381 0.054 0.000 0.164 0.372 0.0022
 IP_savings eased credit access 0.091 0.800 0.286 0.571 0.135 0.111 0.319 0.468 0.0000
 Negotiation with banks eased credit access 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.135 0.222 0.060 0.239 0.0328
 Improved trust eased credit 0.636 0.267 0.190 0.381 0.405 0.444 0.371 0.485 0.1978
 Number of markets increased 0.909 0.933 0.381 1.000 0.703 0.889 0.759 0.430 0.0000
 Food produced 2012/2013 season was enough 0.818 1.000 0.429 0.905 0.919 0.889 0.819 0.387 0.0000
 Food produced 2013/2014 season was enough 0.909 0.867 0.429 0.667 0.919 0.778 0.759 0.430 0.0004
 Improved overall food security 0.818 0.867 0.571 0.952 0.892 0.889 0.828 0.379 0.0151
 Farmer built a house 0.364 0.733 0.429 0.667 0.541 0.667 0.560 0.498 0.2696
 Farmer was able to send children to school 0.091 0.867 0.952 1.000 0.973 0.667 0.836 0.372 0.0000
 N (%) 11 (9.48) 15 (12.93) 21 (18.10) 21 (18.10) 37 (31.90) 9 (7.76) 116 (100)   
  1. SD standard deviation. Data were collected from selected smallholder farmers from Balaka IP in southern province, Malawi, p value is for one-way ANOVA (equality of group means)