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Table 3 Food insecurity themes and corresponding items, India, 2000–2015

From: Internal validity and reliability of experience-based household food insecurity scales in Indian settings

Study Setting Language Item (abbreviation) % yes Severity (s.e) In-fit Out-fit
Anxiety relating to food budget or food supply
 Nord [11] Odisha/rural Oriya Food bought didn’t last (food no last) 75.9 2.79 (0.16) 0.75 0.16
 Agrawal et al. [21, 22] Delhi/urban Hindi Food did not last and no money for more 51.7 4.80 (0.4) 0.77 0.56
Meerut/urban Hindi Food did not last and no money for more 74.5 5.25 (0.03) 0.60 1.11
 Chatterjee et al. [25] Mumbai/urban Hindi Worried household wouldn’t have enough food 61.1a
 Maitra [30] Kolkata/urban Bengali Worried food would run out 23.0 5.53 (0.21) 1.05 0.75
 Maitra [30] Kolkata/urban Bengali Food stored ran out 18.8 6.44 (0.22) 1.30 0.46
 Chinnakali et al. [26] Delhi/urban Hindi Worried household would not have enough food 2.0a
 IIPS-UNICEF [28] Maharashtra State (yes/no) Marathi, English Worried household would not have enough food 42.1 3.24 (0.11) 1.29 4.50
Polytomous scale
No = 0, rarely = 1, sometimes/often = 2
Marathi, English Worried household would not have enough food 1.56 1.78
 IFPRI [27] Odisha Oriya Worried household would not have enough food 34.1 3.80 (0.19) 0.92 0.89
Perceptions of inadequate food quality or quantity
 Nord et al. [11] Odisha/rural Oriya Couldn’t afford to eat balanced meals (balanced meal) 77.3 2.94 (0.17) 1.00 4.96
Odisha/rural Oriya Eat less than you felt you should (ate less) 48.2 5.50 (0.14) 1.11 3.07
Odisha/rural Oriya Child couldn’t have a balanced meal (child balanced) 56.7 3.56 (0.17) 0.94 0.24
 Pasricha et al. [24] Rural Karnataka Kannada Same as above
 Agarwal et al. [21] Delhi/urban Hindi Could not afford to eat balanced meal 65.8 2.25 (0.46) 1.00 0.31
 Agrawal et al. [22] Meerut/urban Hindi Could not afford to eat nutritious meal (nutritious) 84.2a 3.63 (0.03) 1.11 11.22
 UHRC [15] Delhi/urban Hindi Relied on only a few kinds of low-cost food to feed children 99.5a
Could not afford children a balanced meal 89.7a
Children not eating enough 83.6a
 Chatterjee et al. [25] Mumbai/urban Hindi Eat the same foods daily 60.1a
Have to eat any type of food that you did not want (undesirable food) 57.6a
 Gupta et al. [17] Delhi/urban Hindi Relied on only a few kinds of low-cost food to feed children 39.7    
Could not feed children a balanced meal 40.4    
Children not eating enough 30.9    
 Maitra [30] Kolkata/urban Bengali Did you cook bhalo mondo (‘rich food’ such as shemai, paish or polao) (not as part of a festival day) (rich food) 81.6 0.48 (0.41) 1.02 5.00
Could not give children their preferred food and had to rely on only a few kinds of low-cost food (child preferred foodlow-cost food) 16.4 5.36 (0.30) 0.96 2.02
Children could not be given a varied and healthy diet (varied and healthy) 38.5 3.94 (0.35) 1.04 0.86
Children were not eating enough food 11.3 8.90 (0.33) 0.63 0.29
 Chinnakali et al. [26] Delhi/urban Hindi Not able to eat the kinds of foods you preferred 1.6
Have to eat a limited variety of foods 0.4    
Have to eat some foods that you/they really did not want to eat 0.4a    
 IIPS-UNICEF [28] Maharashtra state (only yes/no) Marathi, English Not able to eat the kinds of foods you preferred 36.6 4.25 (0.09) 0.88 5.99
 IIPS-UNICEF [28] Polytomous scale
No = 0, rarely = 1, sometimes/often = 2
Marathi, English Not able to eat the kinds of foods you preferred 1.05 1.01
 IIPS-UNICEF [28] Maharashtra state (only yes/no) Marathi, English Have to eat a limited variety of foods 31.4 5.19 (0.09) 0.85 0.85
 IIPS-UNICEF [28] Polytomous scale
No = 0, rarely = 1, sometimes/often = 2
Marathi, English Have to eat a limited variety of foods 0.91 0.90
IIPS-UNICEF [28] Maharashtra state (only yes/no) Marathi, English Have to eat some foods that you really did not want to eat 25.5 6.08 (0.09) 0.94 0.87
 IIPS-UNICEF [28] Polytomous scale
No = 0, rarely = 1, sometimes/often = 2
Marathi, English Have to eat some foods that you really did not want to eat 0.91 0.84
 IFPRI [27] Odisha Oriya Not able to eat the kinds of foods you preferred 40.5 (65.5)a 3.16 (0.19) 1.36 1.47
 IFPRI [27] Odisha Oriya Have to eat a limited variety of foods 26.5 (67.8)a 4.59 (0.19) 0.88 0.74
 IFPRI [27] Odisha Oriya Have to eat some foods that you really did not want to eat 25.2 (63.2)a 4.74 (0.19) 0.97 0.89
Reported instances of reduced food intake or its consequences for adults
 Nord et al. [11] Odisha/rural Oriya Adults in your household ever cut the size of your meals or skip meals (adult cut/skip) 43.3 6.30 (0.12) 0.76 0.32
 Nord et al. [11] Odisha/rural Oriya Hungry but didn’t eat (hungry) 31.9 7.00 (0.11) 0.98 1.11
 Agrawal et al. [21] Delhi/urban Hindi Cut meal size or skipped meal 23.9 8.97 (0.52) 1.07 4.63
 Agrawal et al. [21] Delhi/urban Hindi Hungry but couldn’t afford food 14.7 11.98 (0.72) 1.00 0.19
 Agrawal et al. [21] Meerut/urban Hindi Cut meal size or skipped meal 43.5 8.14 (0.03) 0.52 0.63
 Agrawal et al. [21] Meerut/urban Hindi Slept hungry but did not eat 20.7 11.98 (0.04) 1.03 6.43
 Chatterjee et al. [25] Mumbai/urban Hindi Eat less than you felt you should 46.3a
Adult in your household cut the size of your meals 48.4a    
Skip some of your daily meals (skip meal) 30.1a    
Food didn’t last and no money to buy more (no food) 34.0a    
Hungry and you did not eat a meal 49.8a
Not eat for a whole day 19.1a
 Maitra [30] Kolkata/urban Bengali Adults in your family couldn’t eat at least two square meals (full stomach meals) a day (two square meals) 16.4 6.90 (0.22) 0.80 0.62
 Maitra [30] Kolkata/urban Bengali Personally eat less food so that there would be more for the rest of the family (ate less) 20.0 6.15 (0.22) 0.88 0.95
 Maitra [30] Kolkata/urban Bengali Adults in your family skip entire meals 3.8 9.74 (0.30) 0.89 1.11
 Maitra [30] Kolkata/urban Bengali Hungry but didn’t eat 2.4 10.87 (0.44) 1.05 0.26
 Maitra [30] Kolkata/urban Bengali Adult lost weight 20.6 6.03 (0.22) 0.78 0.42
 Maitra [30] Kolkata/urban Bengali Adults in your family not eat for a whole day 2.2 10.87 (0.44) 0.70 0.16
 Chinnakali et al. [26] Delhi/urban Hindi Have to eat a smaller meal than you felt you needed 0.4a
Have to eat fewer meals in a day 0.8a    
No food of any kind to eat in your household 2.0a
Go to sleep at night hungry 0.4a
Go a whole day and night without eating anything 0.0a
 IIPS-UNICEF [28] Maharashtra State (yes/no) Marathi, English Have to eat a smaller meal than you felt you needed 20.3 6.90 (0.09) 0.62 0.37
 IIPS-UNICEF [28] Polytomous scale
No = 0, rarely = 1, sometimes/often = 2
Marathi, English Have to eat a smaller meal than you felt you needed 0.67 0.52
 IIPS-UNICEF [28] Maharashtra state (yes/no) Marathi, English Have to eat fewer meals in a day 18.2 7.35 (0.09) 0.63 0.47
 IIPS-UNICEF [28] Polytomous scale
No = 0, rarely = 1, sometimes/often = 2
Marathi, English Have to eat fewer meals in a day 0.68 0.53
 IIPS-UNICEF [28] Maharashtra State (yes/no) Marathi, English No food of any kind to eat in your household 12.2 8.65 (0.10) 0.86 0.92
 IIPS-UNICEF [28] Polytomous scale
No = 0, rarely = 1, sometimes/often = 2
Marathi, English No food of any kind to eat in your household 0.92 0.72
 IIPS-UNICEF [28] Maharashtra State (yes/no) Marathi, English Go to sleep at night hungry 7.7 9.97 (0.13) 0.85 7.04
 IIPS-UNICEF [28] Maharashtra state (only yes/no) Marathi, English Go a whole day and night without eating 4.5 11.37 (0.18) 1.09 11.54
 IIPS-UNICEF [28] Polytomous scale
No = 0, rarely = 1, sometimes/often = 2
Marathi, English Go a whole day and night without eating 1.19 2.10
 IFPRI [27] Odisha Oriya Have to eat a smaller meal than you felt you needed 23.3 (59.8) 4.96 (0.19) 0.86 0.78
 IFPRI [27] Odisha Oriya Have to eat fewer meals in a day 19.6 (51.7) 5.45 (0.19) 0.88 0.76
 IFPRI [27] Odisha Oriya No food of any kind to eat in your household 13.9 (47.3) 6.37 (0.20) 0.84 0.66
 IFPRI [27] Odisha Oriya Go to sleep at night hungry 12.1 6.75(0.20) 1.13 0.90
 IFPRI [27] Odisha Oriya Go a whole day and night without eating 11.1 (31.8) 7.00 1.19 0.93
Reported instances of reduced food intake or its consequences for children
 Nord et al. [11] Odisha/rural Oriya Cut the size of any of the children’s meals/or ever skipped meals of children (child cut/skip) 14.2 8.04 (0.12) 0.86 1.95
 Nord et al. [11] Odisha/rural Oriya Children ever not eat for a whole day (child whole day) 4.96 9.04 (0.16) 1.10 0.73
 UHRC [15] Delhi/urban Hindi Cut the size of children’s meals 64.7b
Children ever hungry but you just could not afford more food 63.4b    
Children ever skip meals 34.1b
Frequency of skipping meals 31.1b
Child not eat for a whole day 0.0b
 Gupta et al. [17] Delhi/urban Hindi Cut the size of children’s meals 8.5
Children hungry but could not afford food 5.6
Children ever skip meals 2.9
Frequency of skipping meals 1.6
Child not eat for a whole day 1.3
 Maitra [30] Kolkata/urban Bengali Children in your family could not eat at least three square meals (full stomach meals) a day (child 3 square meals) 9.1c 9.66 (0.39) 1.25 5.37
 Maitra [30] Kolkata/urban Bengali Skip child’s/any of the children’s meals 1.1c
 Maitra [30] Kolkata/urban Bengali Child/children hungry but you just couldn’t afford more food 1.5c
 Maitra [30] Kolkata/urban Bengali Children in the household lost weight/felt weak (child lost weight) 20.0c 7.14 (0.28) 0.71 0.46
 Maitra [30] Kolkata/urban Bengali Child did not eat a whole day 0.75c
 Nord and Cafiero [29]d India Multiple Child not given enough food because of lack of money or other resources
  1. aPercentage of affirmative responses to combined ‘sometimes + often’ follow-ups. All questions are followed by phrases such as ‘because of a lack of money or other resources’ or ‘because you didn’t have enough money to buy food/more’. The item ‘run out of food/run out/food no last’ to be included in the domain of ‘worry/anxiety’ in US HFSSM (18 or 6-item scale) and FIES GWP 2012; however, it represents a more severe food insecurity condition in the HFIAS and FIES GWP 2014
  2. bThe GWP 2014 had extended FIES (eight adult items) where the extension was to include ‘how often’ follow-up questions to the two most severe questions (‘hungry’ and ‘whole day’)
  3. cThe GWP 2012 data for FIES included seven questions that asked about food conditions among children aged 0–14 years in the household
  4. dThe GWP 2014 had two child items if child aged under-five lived in the household. Child items were for research purposes and not included in the scale. No child items are included in the GWP 2015 survey