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Table 1 Adaptation options for livestock-based livelihoods to major climatic risks in West Africa.

From: Toward climate-smart agriculture in West Africa: a review of climate change impacts, adaptation strategies and policy developments for the livestock, fishery and crop production sectors

Agro-ecological zone Dominant livestock system Climatic risk Adaptation option
Arid Pastoral
Agro-pastoral
Drought Shift to small ruminants and camels
Livestock mobility to semiarid/subhumid zones
Commercial activities
Growing of adapted crop varieties in the “oasis”
Migration (local and regional)
Semiarid Pastoral
Agro-pastoral
Peri-urban livestock
Drought
Flood
Bush fire
Shift to small ruminants
Livestock mobility to subhumid zone
Better integration of crop and livestock
Commercial activities
Growing of adapted crop varieties, e.g., drought-tolerant millet/sorghum
Fodder conservation
Migration (local and regional)
Subhumid/humid Mixed crop livestock
Peri-urban livestock
Flood
Bush fire
Vector-borne diseases, e.g., ticks, trypanosomiasis
Intensification of crop-livestock production
Growing of cash crops, e.g., cotton
Fodder production and conservation
Use and conservation of endemic livestock breeds
Commercial activities
Moving out of agriculture to service industry
Coastal Peri-urban livestock Flood
Water erosion
Vector-borne diseases
Use and conservation of endemic livestock breeds
Commercial activities
Moving out of agriculture to service industry