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Table 2 Access to livelihood capitals of respondents

From: Access to livelihood capitals and propensity for entrepreneurship amongst rice farmers in Ghana

Livelihood capitals Before the technology intervention After the technology intervention Wilcoxon signed ranks test
Levels High Low High Low Negative ranks Positive ranks Z score coefficient Asymp. sig. (2-tailed)
Natural capital
 Land access and utilisation 137 (46) 172 (57) 218 (73) 81 (27) 89 89 −10.222 0.0000
 Water utilisation 98 (33) 186 (62) 245 (82) 55 (18) 246 121.5 −14.829 0.0000
 Land tenure arrangement 90 (30) 208 (69) 211 (70) 87 (29) 218.73 132.5 −15.065 0.0000
 Payment for land if rented 189 (63) 91 (30) 223 (74) 77 (26) 78.5 78.5 −11.609 0.0000
 Land quality and fertility of soil 131 (44) 162 (54) 198 (66) 101 (34) 128.85 121.5 −9.2 0.0000
 Watershed development and conservation facilities 79 (26) 162 (54) 157 (52) 142 (47) 120.91 75.8 −4.311 0.0000
 Water streams 164 (55) 146 (49) 155 (52) 140 (47) 98 115.67 −10.4 0.0000
Physical capital
 Road and transport to the farms 53 (18) 247 (82) 73 (24) 227 (76) 34.85 28.5 −5.958 0.0000
 Market access 92 (31) 172 (57) 212 (71) 88 (29) 29.1 28 −6.171 0.0000
 Silos/storage facilities 12 (42) 162 (54) 145 (48) 155 (52) 33.17 30.5 −4.130 0.0000
 Farm sheds 171 (57) 128 (43) 235 (78) 65 (22) 32.74 39.23 −4.376 0.0000
 Agricultural machinery 133 (44) 176 (59) 147 (49) 152 (51) 35.68 37.73 −5.581 0.0000
 Irrigation infrastructure 112 (37) 184 (63) 153 (51) 143 (47) 38.34 35.5 −6.524 0.0000
 Netting scare crows 128 (43) 172 (57) 189 (63) 99 (33) 37.01 47.32 −5.328 0.0000
 Processing facilities (mills) 171 (57) 128 (43) 235 (78) 65 (22) 35.87 46.19 −5.904 0.0000
 Housing facilities 128 (43) 172 (57) 189 (63) 99 (33) 34.14 57.33 −5.045 0.0000
 Health facilities 112 (37) 182 (61) 153 (51) 144 (48) 25.38 32.54 −3.072 0.0020
 Telephone access 129 (43) 172 (57) 190 (63) 99 (33) 24.25 29.5 −2.354 0.0190
Human capital
 Extension services 137 (46) 161 (54) 198 (66) 97 (32) 118 128 −12.655 0.0000
 Rice skills training 98 (33) 187 (62) 267 (89) 32 (11) 179.47 132 −14.267 0.0000
 Technical training 99 (33) 189 (63) 269 (90) 33 (11) 141 141 −15.391 0.0000
 Land management training 92 (31) 165 (55) 187 (62) 86 (29) 138.5 138.5 −15.229 0.0000
 Disease treatment 134 (45) 162 (54) 254 (85) 46 (15) 138.5 138.5 −15.229 0.0000
 Water management 121 (40) 173 (58) 215 (72) 78 (26) 141 161 −15.391 0.0000
 Soil management 127 (42) 174 (58) 220 (73) 80 (27) 138 148 −14.593 0.0000
 Marketing skills 93 (31) 197 (66) 187 (62) 92 (31) 138 138 −14.111 0.0000
 Level of education 167 (56) 133 (44) 162 (54) 130 (43) 132 136.69 −15.098 0.0000
 Innovative and creative thinking 88 (29) 181 (60) 121 (40) 173 (58) 124 125.59 −13.977 0.0000
 Knowledge of farm management 87 (29) 178 (59) 137 (46) 165 (55) 114.5 116.14 −12.501 0.0000
 Record keeping 96 (32) 194 (65) 262 (87) 38 (13) 154.09 192.64 −11.458 0.0000
 Health status 125 (42) 175 (58) 180 (60) 120 (40) 120 121.53 −14.978 0.0000
 Trainings and other services 130 (43) 162 (54) 200 (67) 96 (32) 131.5 135.72 −14.667 0.0000
Social capital
 Relationship with relatives/neighbours 230 (77) 68 (23) 231 (77) 70 (23) 122.29 89.65 −7.552 0.0000
 Labour networking (for farm work) 161 (54) 134 (45) 187 (62) 119 (40) 115.37 102.65 −7.153 0.0000
 Network with MOFA, AEAs and assemblies 126 (42) 173 (58) 246 (82) 53 (18) 95 100.98 −11.706 0.0000
 Network with financial institutions 54 (18) 165 (55) 143 (48) 160 (53) 77 83.96 −10.927 0.0000
 Network with transporters 98 (33) 132 (44) 96 (32) 145 (48) 79.5 79.5 −9.388 0.0000
 Network with shop owners and input dealers 97 (32) 168 (56) 154 (51) 143 (48) 106.32 98.6 −10.205 0.0000
 Network with processors 125 (42) 175 (58) 197 (66) 102 (34) 96.5 98.16 −8.395 0.0000
 Network with millers 134 (45) 165 (55) 243 (81) 52 (52) 88 91.46 −11.201 0.0000
 Network with farmers association (FBOs) 156 (52) 140 (47) 251 (84) 49 (49) 74.5 92.71 −9.849 0.0000
 Network with other production group(NGOs and civic group 118 (39) 182 (61) 132 (44) 165 (55) 69.5 74.58 −10.628 0.0000
 Network with Village committee 132 (44) 165 (55) 195 (65) 106 (35) 57 71.81 −7.053 0.0000
Financial capital
 Farm incomes 178 (59) 156 (52) 213 (71) 81 (27) 82 82 −3.211 0.0010
 Non-farm income/revenues 67 (22) 98 (33) 164 (55) 100 (33) 50 55.38 −3.475 0.0010
 Savings 133 (44) 167 (56) 189 (63) 117 (39) 81 89.02 −5.250 0.0000
 Self-help groups savings 98 (33) 192 (64) 153 (51) 144 (48) 97.26 87.38 −8.248 0.0000
 Credits from relatives and friends 142 (47) 109 (36) 156 (52) 131 (44) 71 78.12 −8.493 0.0000
 Access to bank credits 49 (16) 250 (83) 111 (37) 184 (61) 80.5 82.47 −6.710 0.0000
 Self-help groups loan (FBOs) 83 (28) 276 (92) 234 (78) 62 (21) 75.98 72 −2.646 0.0080