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Table 1 Comparative overview of major food security approaches

From: The interplay between household food security and wellbeing among small-scale farmers in the context of rapid agrarian change in India

  Food availability Entitlement and livelihood Food sovereignty
Goal Increase per capita available food stock Enhance economic access to food Control over production and decision-making process
Strategy Food production through intensive agriculture in favourable regions Access to employment and income
Diversify livelihood portfolio
Right to produce and consume own choice of food
GMO-free and agro-ecological (including organic) agriculture
Safeguard small farms from external markets and corporate agriculture
Support-led interventions Green revolution with public sector support
Public distribution system of food
NREGA
Cash transfer
Participatory research
Agro-ecological research
Organic certification and labelling
Growth-led interventions Biotechnology
Agrochemical industry
Free trade and investment
Industrial and infrastructure growth
Rural–urban migration of labour
Farmers’ niche markets and fair trade shops
Consumer-supported agriculture
Outcome Ends oriented: Adequacy for meeting caloric demand at national level Capability oriented: Income and fair wages, skills development, empowerment Means oriented: Self-sufficiency in local food production without exceeding carrying capacity of ecosystem