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Table 1 Summary characteristics of civic and industrial food subsystems

From: Potential environmental and population health impacts of local urban food systems under climate change: a life cycle analysis case study of lettuce and chicken

Criteria Civic food chain Industrial food chain
Scale of production Small scale production with local distribution Large scale, widespread, high volume production/processing/distribution
Business model Independent decision making, production highly variable. Probably no business plan, do not make an income or pay tax Large capital investment for production (hundreds of millions of Australian dollars)
Employees Likely no paid labour, no workers compensation, no OHS plan or HACCP plan Paid workforce, worker education, safety plans in place and managed
Value adding Minimal value adding to food product Value adding on some products. Use of cooking and freezers is likely
Motivation Motivation likely to be highly diverse and may include desire for healthy food, preference for organic foods, food taste, saving money, environmental sustainability, enjoyable lifestyle, cultural acceptance Motivation is primarily monetary profit but other values will also be present
Consumer access Availability to consumers at same location as production/processing Available at large retail supermarkets in addition to other food outlets
Location Location co-exists with house garden or community plot. Urban or residential-rural location Multiple production and growing sites are likely. Both rural and urban locations
  1. HACCP, hazard analysis and critical control point; OHS, occupational health and safety.