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Figure 2 | Agriculture & Food Security

Figure 2

From: Pollination and biological control research: are we neglecting two billion smallholders

Figure 2

Analyses of pooled studies for biases in region, income group, biome and farming landscape. Unique pollination and biological control studies (relevant to agriculture), pooled from all quantitative reviews, are compared by percentage for World Bank regions (A), World Bank income groups (B), biomes (C) and farming landscapes (D). In C) Trop = tropical and sub-tropical; Temp = temperate; Med = Mediterranean. Expected values for each factor level were derived from the percentage of the total area of global cropland (A and B)[9]; the percentage of the total area of global cropland (C)[35, 36]; and the percentage of global agricultural area (D)[17, 18] or the percent of the global agricultural population in each farming landscape. A) Region Pollination (Poll):χ2 = 37.9, P <0.001; Biocontrol (BioC): P <0.001 (Exact Multinomial Test). B) Income Poll: χ2 = 95.8; P <0.001; BioC: χ2 = 253.0, P <0.001. C) Biome Poll: χ2 = 18.3, P <0.001; BioC: χ2 = 78.1, P <0.001. D) Farming System percent Global Agriculture: Poll: P = 0.541, χ2 = 0.4; BioC: P = 0.014, χ2 = 6.09; percent Global Agricultural Population: Poll: P <0.001, χ2 = 237.5; BioC: P <0.001, χ2 = 412.4 (Note α for tests in D is 0.025 due to a Bonferoni correction for multiple testing).

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