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Table 5 Marginal effects associated with the food security model

From: Household adoption of soil-improving practices and food insecurity in Ghana

Independent variables Marginal effect Standard error z p> | z| 95% confidence interval
Chronic food insecure
 Adoption of soil imp. -0.011 0.031 -0.370 0.714 -0.073 0.050
 Chemical fertilizer -0.076 0.050 -1.520 0.128 -0.173 0.022
 Commercial seed -0.051 0.042 -1.220 0.223 -0.134 0.031
 Herbicides -0.043 0.049 -0.880 0.381 -0.138 0.053
 Insecticide 0.065 0.036 1.780 0.076 -0.007 0.136
 Medium-quality soil -0.200 0.065 -3.080 0.002 -0.327 -0.073
 Off-farm activity -0.022 0.024 -0.880 0.377 -0.069 0.026
 Seasonal lease 0.007 0.032 0.210 0.836 -0.056 0.069
 Share cropping 0.035 0.058 0.600 0.551 -0.079 0.149
 Income -0.001 0.001 -1.620 0.105 -0.002 0.000
 Education level -0.030 0.029 -1.020 0.307 -0.087 0.027
 Household size -0.001 0.006 -0.090 0.929 -0.012 0.011
 Age of house head -0.001 0.001 -0.760 0.446 -0.003 0.001
 Extension service 0.033 0.025 1.310 0.189 -0.016 0.082
Seasonal food insecure
 Adoption of soil imp. -0.025 0.064 -0.390 0.694 -0.150 0.100
 Chemical fertilizer -0.093 0.040 -2.340 0.019 -0.171 -0.015
 Commercial seed -0.092 0.058 -1.590 0.112 -0.206 0.022
 Herbicides -0.065 0.046 -1.400 0.161 -0.155 0.026
 Insecticide 0.122 0.059 2.080 0.037 0.007 0.237
 Medium-quality soil -0.222 0.071 -3.130 0.002 -0.361 -0.083
 Off-farm activity -0.061 0.081 -0.750 0.451 -0.219 0.097
 Seasonal lease 0.016 0.080 0.200 0.842 -0.141 0.173
 Share cropping 0.056 0.063 0.900 0.371 -0.067 0.179
 Income -0.002 0.001 -1.630 0.104 -0.005 0.000
 Education level -0.060 0.050 -1.200 0.229 -0.158 0.038
 Household size -0.001 0.014 -0.090 0.929 -0.029 0.026
 Age of house head -0.002 0.002 -0.770 0.440 -0.006 0.003
 Extension service 0.101 0.092 1.100 0.272 -0.079 0.281
Vulnerable food insecure
 Adoption of soil imp. 0.018 0.046 0.380 0.703 -0.073 0.108
 Chemical fertilizer 0.085 0.042 2.020 0.043 0.003 0.168
 Commercial seed 0.070 0.049 1.430 0.153 -0.026 0.165
 Herbicides 0.054 0.048 1.110 0.268 -0.041 0.149
 Insecticide -0.089 0.044 -2.030 0.042 -0.175 -0.003
 Medium-quality soil 0.187 0.049 3.840 0.000 0.092 0.282
 Off-farm activity 0.037 0.046 0.820 0.413 -0.052 0.127
 Seasonal lease -0.011 0.052 -0.200 0.839 -0.113 0.092
 Share cropping -0.045 0.062 -0.720 0.470 -0.168 0.077
 Income 0.002 0.001 1.630 0.104 0.000 0.003
 Education level 0.043 0.039 1.130 0.260 -0.032 0.119
 Household size 0.001 0.010 0.090 0.929 -0.018 0.019
 Age of house head 0.001 0.002 0.770 0.443 -0.002 0.004
 Extension service -0.059 0.048 -1.230 0.220 -0.153 0.035
Food secure
 Adoption of soil imp. 0.019 0.049 0.390 0.698 -0.077 0.115
 Chemical fertilizer 0.084 0.037 2.250 0.025 0.011 0.157
 Commercial seed 0.074 0.049 1.510 0.130 -0.022 0.169
 Herbicides 0.054 0.044 1.230 0.220 -0.032 0.140
 Insecticide -0.098 0.047 -2.060 0.039 -0.191 -0.005
 Medium-quality soil 0.235 0.056 4.200 0.000 0.125 0.345
 Off-farm activity 0.045 0.059 0.760 0.447 -0.071 0.161
 Seasonal lease -0.012 0.060 -0.200 0.841 -0.129 0.105
 Share cropping -0.046 0.057 -0.800 0.425 -0.158 0.066
 Income 0.002 0.001 1.680 0.092 0.000 0.004
 Education level 0.046 0.040 1.170 0.240 -0.031 0.124
 Household size 0.001 0.011 0.090 0.929 -0.020 0.022
 Age of house head 0.001 0.002 0.780 0.437 -0.002 0.005
 Extension service -0.075 0.069 -1.090 0.274 -0.209 0.059
  1. The marginal effects are for the discrete change in the qualitative 0–1 variables.