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Table 1 Carbon dioxide equivalent emission reduction potential and cost and resource savings through smallholder biogas units

From: Integrated food–energy systems for climate-smart agriculture

Type CO2e emission reductions (tons per year) Savings References
Domestic energy replacement Manure management Synthetic fertilizer replacement Domestic energy Fertilizer replacement
Household, Vietnam (1) 2.15 0.08 US$77.57/year [39]
Household, Vietnam (2) 2.9 2.1 0.5 US$ 120/year [41]
National potential, Vietnam 630 million 3.14 million US$673.4 million/year [39, 42]
Household, Nepal 2 to 3 tons of wood/year [38]
Household, China 5 US$ 5 (wood);US$ 158 (coal)/year   [40]
30 million units, China (2005)   150 million   2.2 million tons of coal; 2.1 million tons of wood; 5 million tons of straw/year Liu (2008) cited in [40]
National potential, China 93 million tons of coal/year [40]
  1. CO2e, carbon dioxide equivalent.