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Table 2 Details of coefficients used for the assessment of indirect nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission

From: Exploration of ‘hot-spots’ of methane and nitrous oxide emission from the agriculture fields of Assam, India

Primary factor Break-up of primary factor Details Coefficient or value Remark
IPCC emission factor Indian emission factor
N2O(G) (N2O emission from volatilization of applied nitrogen fertilizer and animal manure and its subsequent atmospheric deposition as NOx and NH4) NFERT The total amount of synthetic fertilizer consumed annually [17] -- -- --
The value of FracGASF, T, N(T), Nex(T), and FracGASMweresame as in Table 1. -- -- -- --
EF4 [kg N2O-N kg-1 NH4-N and NOx-N deposited] Emission factor for N2O emission from atmospheric NH3 and NOx 0.01 [19] 0.005 [8] --
N2O(L) (N2O produced from leaching and runoff of applied nitrogen fertilizer and animal manure) NFERT The total amount of synthetic fertilizer consumed annually [17] -- -- --
The value of T, N(T), and Nex(T), are same as in table 1. -- -- -- --
FracFUEL-AM Animal manure burnt for fuel 52.5% [22] 52.5% [22] IPCC manual suggests using official statistics of the nation or expert survey [19].
FracPRP-AM Fraction of animal manure that is deposited on to the soil by grazing animal Not used in this study Not used in this study No data available.
FracCOLLEC Loss during the collection of dung 30.0% [23] 30.0% [23] --
FracFEED-AM Fraction of animal manure used as feed 0.0% 0.0% Taken as zero, as animal manure is hardly used as feed in India [8].
FracCONST-AM Fraction of animal manure used in construction 2.0% [22] 2.0% [22] IPCC manual suggestsuse of official statistics of the nation or expert survey [19].
FracLEACH Fraction of nitrogen lost through leaching 30.0% [19] 10.0% [8] IPCC manual uses default value of 30%for FracLEACH. This default value was largely based on mass balance studies comparing agricultural N inputs to N recovered in rivers. The IPCC manualsuggests the N that is deposited away from agricultural land, a lower value of FracLEACH may be more appropriate based on regional or national studies [19]. Bhatia et al. [8] used an Indian emission factor of 10% based on the studies by Singh et al. [30] and Patel et al. [31].
EF5 [kg N2O-N kg-1leached and run off] The emission factor for depositing N from leaching and run-off. 0.025 [19] 0.005 [8] --
  1. IPCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.