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Table 1 Elements of integrated agricultural landscape management[26]

From: From climate-smart agriculture to climate-smart landscapes

1) Landscape interventions are designed to achieve multiple objectives, including human well-being, food and fiber production, climate change mitigation, and conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services
2) Ecological, social and economic interactions among different parts of the landscape are managed to seek positive synergies among interests and actors or reduce negative trade offs
3) The key role of local communities and households as both producers and land stewards is acknowledged
4) A long-term perspective is taken for sustainable development, adapting strategies as need to address dynamic social and economic changes
5) Participatory processes of social learning and multi-stakeholder negotiation are institutionalized, including efforts to involve all parts of the community and ensure that the livelihoods of the most vulnerable people and groups are protected or enhanced [20]